31 Ağustos 2010 Salı

What is the Importance of Breastfeeding for Baby?

What is the importance of breast milk for babies?
Breast milk, babies who need all the nutrients alone could provide the first six months is the best food. The first yellow breast milk and milk after birth, the baby is very important, because it protects the baby against disease, the baby is the first vaccine. Vital for breastfed babies. To establish a love relationship with the baby's mother is breastfeeding the best way to communicate. Moreover, the IQ level of breast-fed infants, babies fed with other foods is more than eight points.

Why breast milk is best food for babies?
Breast milk, baby's first six months in need of protein, fat, iron, vitamin has any nutritional value. It is easy to digest mother's milk, do not need to boil. Always fresh, clean and ready to give the baby.

Breast milk protects babies against which diseases?
Mother's milk and milk after birth, the first yellow diarrhea, colds, cough is protected from disease. Breast-fed children from asthma, allergies, children are more resistant to diseases such as diabetes and cancer rates were lower than the known. Because of sufficient iron in breast milk, breastfed infants are not anemia. In addition, breastfed babies, rash, abdominal pain and constipation are less common.

Common in infants not given breast milk are the risks?
Not breast-fed children mortality rates 4-6 times more than fed. World Health Organization (WHO) had higher rates of breast-feeding women by 1.5 million per year would get rid of the baby's life.

How long babies should be fed with breast milk?
World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF, breast feeding after birth and the first six months is proposed. After the first six months of breast-feeding with appropriate supplements up to two years and should continue on.

What would be ideal for breastfeeding?
Breastfeeding mothers during pregnancy on the island should be informed and aware. 24 hours must be with the mother and baby. Half an hour after birth, breast feeding should begin. Breastfeeding mothers and babies are separated from the milk, they should keep their teaching methods. Newborn infants no food or drink other than breast milk should not be given. Should encourage mothers to breastfeed. Artificial nipple or pacifier should not be given to breastfeeding infants.

What are the health benefits of breastfeeding mothers?
Private love relationship between breast-feeding mothers with babies ensures. Breastfeeding immediately after birth reduces the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. The mother of the baby sucking mother's urinary tract infections, breast and ovarian cancer is known to protect.

What are the psychological benefits of breastfeeding?
Breastfeeding among mothers and children provides a close loving relationship. The mother provides emotional satisfaction. Babies cry less. Acts more loving mother to her baby. Infant abandonment or maltreatment is less likely.

Every baby is crying to be breast-feeding?
Yes, any cry babies should be breastfed. Newborn babies like to suck meal usually 80-10 days. Then gradually reduce the frequency of intake of the baby.

Limits your children!

As parents we are inexperienced, our baby when we falter first six months. Everyone around us we hear you say, it all combines to make for ourselves, and we applied stimulation.Of course, the baby's personality, important factors such as family structure affects the baby.We keep some limits on when the baby is started. That all of you, like trying to do ...For example;Evening bed time,Cooking time,Collection table habit before bedtime,Hands, mouth, teeth cleaning habits,Habit of sitting in a car seat ...There is needed, but they are more important.My daughter started to express himself from the moment he began to appeal to some

30 Ağustos 2010 Pazartesi

individual adults and children to give importance to the development

a healthy growth and development of a distinct pleasure to watch

conscious parents who help in their development



Caribbean Water and Wastewater Association (CWWA)

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

Inter-American Association of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering (AIDIS)

Organization of American States (OAS)

Pan American Health Organization

World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO)

United Nations Environment Program

Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNEP/ROLAC)


PanAmericanCenterforSanitaryEngineeringandEnvironmentalSciences, CEPIS/PAHO,2003

CEPISDirector: Dr.MauricioPardónOjeda

Materialpreparedby: Dr.MarceloKorc



Los Pinos 259, Urbanización Camacho, Lima 12, Peru

P.O. Box 4337 - Lima 100, Peru

Telephone: (51 1) 437 1077

Fax: (51 1) 437 8289






ore than 30 million children in Latin America and the Caribbean breathe

unhealthy air. If you live or work in a polluted area or environment, you might know a

child affected by dirty air. Common symptoms are soreness in the chest, tearful eyes,


According to health professionals, children are more susceptible to air pollution


Children take in more air in proportion to their

bodyweight and lungsizeandspendmoretimeoutdoorsthanadultsdo.

Children's bodies are developing and are more


Some studies have shown that children living in polluted areas or environments

are more susceptible to respiratory infections. Although symptoms may not be

apparent,theyhavehigher probabilityof suffering damages that maycauselossesin lung


The Inter-American Air Quality Day, celebrated on 8 August 2003, is an

opportunity to promotehealthyairforchildren,showingthehazardsofairpollutionand

their impact on children's health, and simple measurestoreduceoreliminate them.We

welcomeyourparticipation inthisinitiative

They are more exposed:

They are more vulnerable:

Let´s protect our children 3

Let´s clean the air

1. Poor airquality. Why?

The air we breathe is mainly composed of nitrogen and oxygen. It contains also

small quantities of other gases such as carbon dioxide, argon, neon, helium, hydrogen,

and methane,andavariableamountofwatervapor.

Air composition is modified

by particles and gases generated by

human activities, primarily the

burning of fossil fuels, such as

petroleum, and the industrialization

of chemical products. When the

changes reach levels that are

hazardous to human health, other

aspects of well-being, and the

environment, we are confronted

with . The most

common pollutants released into

the air or formed within it are

carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur

dioxide (SO ), nitrogen oxides

(NO ), volatile organic compounds

(VOC), ground-level ozone (O ),

and solid and liquid suspended

particles, including heavy metals

such as lead

air pollution





Carbonmonoxide (CO)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

COis a colorlessandodorless gas. The mainhuman activity that generates COis

the incomplete burning of fossil fuels, such as gasoline. It can be especially hazardous in

cities where the use of old and poorly maintained vehicles, intense traffic, and vehicle

congestion are prevalent. This gas may also be hazardous in enclosed environments that


SO is a colorless gas generated by the burning of sulfur. The main activities that

generate SO are the burning of fossil fuels and the smelting of minerals with high sulfur





4 Inter-American Air Quality Day

Let´s protect our children 5

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)


Volatileorganiccompounds (COV)

Ground-level ozone (O )


The main human activity that generates NO is fuel burningathightemperatures.

Major NO sources include the exhaust pipes of motor vehicles in circulation and the


VOC are organic substances, such as benzene and acetaldehyde, which readily

evaporate at temperatures lower than their boiling points. Major VOCsources include

the burning and evaporation of fossil fuels and organic solvents and the emissions


Ground-level ozone is a secondary pollutant formed by a complex series of

chemical reactions of NO and VOC in the presence of sunlight. The variations of O

concentrations in a particular location depend on several factors including the

concentrationsofNO and VOCintheair,intensity of sunlight,weatherconditions, and


Suspended particles such as ash and dust are usuallyclassified according to their

size. Coarse particles are generated by mechanical means and are typically fragments of

some larger solid particles, whereas fine particles are generated by physicochemical

processes, such as condensation and chemical transformation of gases. In homes, the

main activity that generates suspended particles is the burning of wood, coal, dung, and

kerosene forcookingorheating.



x 3



2. Howdoes air pollutionaffect children´s health?

Lead is a heavy metal usually released into the air as particles. One of its main

sources istheuseofleadedgasolineinmotorvehicles.


(1) general healthconditions;

(2) pollutanttypeandconcentration;and

(3) exposure time to contaminated air.

Lungs are very complex

organs containing more than 40

different kinds of cells. Air

pollution can change the cells in

the lung by damaging those that

are most susceptible. If the cells

that are damaged are important in

the development of new

functional parts of the lung, then

the lung may not achieve its full

growth and function as a child


The incidence of asthma and

other respiratory diseases in

children such as allergic reactions,

bronchitis, and acute respiratory

infections have increased

significantly in the past years. Air

pollution may be one of the


6 Inter-American Air Quality Day


When inhaled, COreacts very rapidly with hemoglobin in the blood and forms

carboxyhemoglobin, decreasing the oxygen delivery to vital organs such as the



Carbon monoxide(CO)


The severity of symptoms depends on the percentage of hemoglobin that

converts to carboxyhemoglobin. After exposures that convert 5 to 10% of the

hemoglobin to carboxyhemoglobin, the child may react more slowly to external

stimuli. At 10 to 30 percent carboxyhemoglobin, nausea, headaches,

unconsciousness and sometimes death can result. Carbon monoxide may also

have prenatal effects.Pregnantwomenwho are exposedtohighlevelsofCOare

at increasedriskofhavinglowbirth-weightbabies.

SO is a very water-soluble gas and therefore most of the SO that is inhaled is

absorbed in the upper respiratory tract provoking nose and throat irritation.

However, small quantities of SO in the alveoli (the deepestpart ofthelungs)can


Sulfurdioxide (SO2)


2 2


Ozone (O )

O is an oxidantthatcan penetratethedeepestregions oftherespiratorysystem



Increased productionofmucousandatendencytocough.


During severe pollution episodes, soreness in the chest and difficulty to

breathe indeeplywithoutcoughing



Let´s protect our children 7

Nitrogenoxides (NO )

Volatileorganiccompounds (VOCs)




Nitrogen dioxide is the most important NO compound withrespect to adverse

health effects. Under most chemical conditions it is an oxidant, as is ozone.

However,itdiffersfromozoneinthatitsuppressesthe immunesystemtoamuch


Several studies have shown that children under 5 years of age exposed to high

levels of nitrogen dioxide are more susceptible to respiratory infections and


VOCs may cause different adverse health effects in children. For example several

VOCs, such as benzene, are carcinogenic. Others, such as acetaldehyde, may

irritatethe respiratorytract.

In general, it is difficult to assign a quantitative risk associated with particulate

matter because nearly all studies of its health effects find the presence of other

pollutants that may account for several of the effects. However, the exposure to

this contaminanthasbeen associated withthefollowingoutcomes:

Increased hospitaladmissionsofchildrenwithacuterespiratorysymptoms.

Increased schoolsandkindergartenabsences.

Increased medicationusein childrenwith asthma.

According to several research studies,children with asthma living in a community

with high particle concentrations may have suppressed lung growth. After

children moved into cleaner cities their lung growth returned tothenormal rate,


Lead causes kidney and nerve damage and impairs the body ability to produce

hemoglobin. Lead is often measured in children's blood as an index of

environmental exposure. Several studies have shown that even lowlevels of lead

in the blood of children aged 6-7 years old are linked to measurable decreases in

intelligence quotient.


8 Inter-American Air Quality Day

3. Howcanwe protect our children?

Helpour childrentobreathe clean air

To protect our children, we should be aware of the air quality in our community

and considerthefollowingsuggestions:

Don't smoke and don't let

others smoke in your


Keep your home as clean

as possible. Dust, mold,

certain household pests,

secondhand smoke, and

pet dander can trigger

asthma attacks and


Prevent children from

being in closed environments

where kitchens or

stoves are inuse.

Limit outdoor activity on

alert days when air

pollution is especially


Walk, use bicycles, join or

form carpools, and take



Avoid openburning.


Protect our childrenfromleadpoisoning

Let´s protect our children 9


Wash floors and window sills to protect kids from dust and peeling paint


Use baitsandtrapswhenyoucan;placebaitsandtrapswherekidscan'tgetthem.


Neverusegasovens or burnersforheat;neverusebarbecuesorgrills indoors or


Neversleep inroomswithun-ventedgasorkerosenespaceheaters.

Don't run carsinthegarage.

Avoidusing aerosols

Protect our children from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning

10 Inter-American Air Quality Day

4. Frequentlyaskedquestions

What is the compositionof air?

Whendowe say thatthe air is polluted?

Why are children one of the most sensible populations to

polluted air?

What are the most common air pollutants and how are they



contains small quantitiesofcarbondioxide,othergases,andwatervapor.

Wesaythattheairispollutedwhenits compositionhasbeenalteredand reaches

levels hazardous to human health, other aspects of human well-being, and the


They are more sensible because they have greater exposure and vulnerability.

They take in more air in relation to their bodyweight and lung size. Besides, they spend

more time outdoors, their bodies are still developing, and are more susceptible to


Carbon monoxide (CO); sulfur dioxide (SO ); nitrogen oxides (NO ); volatile

organic compounds (VOCs); ground-level ozone (O ); and suspended particles,

2 x


Let´s protect our children 11

including heavy metals as lead, are the most common air pollutants. They are generated


Health effects will depend on general health conditions, pollutant type and

concentration,and exposuretime.Pollutants may irritate theskin, eyes,andrespiratory

tract; cause kidney and nerve damage; reduce oxygen intake capacity; and produce





How do air pollutants affect children´s health?

What can we do to protect our children from air pollution?


29 Ağustos 2010 Pazar

Special Considerations

Any person entering into a structured settlement should be on guard for potential exploitation in relation to the settlement:
Excessive Commissions - Annuities can be highly profitable for insurance companies, and they often carry very large commissions. It is important to ensure that the commissions charged in setting up a structured settlement don't consume an inappropriate percentage of its principal.
Overstated Value - Sometimes, after negotiating a particular settlement figure, the defense will overstate the value of a structured settlement. As a result the plaintiff, in accepting the settlement, in fact obtains a significantly lower dollar value than was agreed upon. Some defendants have nominally paid the full amount of the settlement, knowing that they would later obtain significant rebates from the annuity companies they used. Plaintiffs should consider compariing the fees and commissions charged for similar settlement packages by a variety of insurance companies, to make sure that they are in fact getting full value. A plaintiff may wish to make it a condition of the settlement that the defendant will actually pay the full value of the settlement in setting up the structured settlement, and that any rebates received by the defendant for annuities included in the settlement be payable to the plaintiff.
Self-Dealing - There have been cases where the plaintiff's lawyer is also in the insurance business, and sets up a structured settlement on behalf of a client without disclosing that the attorney is purchasing the annuities from his own business, or is pocketing a large commission on the annuities. Similarly, there have been situations where the plaintiff's attorney has referred the client to a particular financial planner to set up a structured settlement, without disclosing that the financial planner will be paying the attorney a referral fee in relation to the client's account. Make sure that you know what financial interest, if any, your lawyer has in relation to any financial services sold or recommended by the lawyer.
Life Expectancy - It is unfortunate, but many people who receive large personal injury or workers' compensation settlements will have a shortened life expectancy as a result of their injuries. It is important to consider life expectancy in association with any structured settlement, and to consider whether it is appropriate to enter into an annuity where payments will cease upon death. Sometimes it will make sense to insist upon an annuity that pays a minimum number of payments, or one that will pay a balance into the plaintiff's estate, such that the value of the settlement is not lost to an insurance company upon the plaintiff's untimely death.
Using Multiple Insurance Companies - For larger settlements, it often makes sense to purchase annuities for a structured settlement from several different companies, dividing the settlement between those companies. This can provide you with protection in the event that a company that issued annuities for your settlement package goes into bankruptcy - even in the event that one of the companies defaults in part or in full on your settlement payments, you would still receive full payment from the other companies.

Selling a Structured Settlement

If you have a structured settlement, you may have been approached by a company interested in purchasing your settlement, or may be curious about selling your settlement in return for a lump sum buyout. About two thirds of states have enacted laws which restict the sale of structured settlements, and tax-free structured settlements are also subject to federal restrictions on their sale to a third party. Also, some insurance companies will not assign or transfer annuities to third parties, to discourage the sale of structured settlements. As a consequence, depending upon where you live and the terms of your annuities, it may not be possible for you to sell your settlement.
Keep in mind that companies which buy structured settlements intend to profit from their purchase, and sometimes their offers may seem quite low. You may benefit from approaching more than one company in relation to the sale of your settlement, to make sure that you obtain the highest payoff. You also want to be sure that the company which wants to buy your settlement is established, well-funded, and reputable - you don't want a fly-by-night outfit to obtain the rights to your annuities but to disappear or go bankrupt before paying you the buyout money. You may have to go to court to get a judge to approve the buyout. It is usually a good idea to consult with a lawyer before entering into an agreement to sell your settlement.

Potential Disadvantages of Structured Settlements

Some people who enter into structured settlements feel trapped by the periodic payments. They may wish to purchase a new home, or other expensive item, yet be unable to muster the resources because they can't borrow against future payments under their settlement.
Some people will do better by accepting a lump sum settlement, and investing it themselves. Many standard investments will give a greater long-term return than the annuities used in structured settlements.